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Full text of "Summer term of the Western State Normal School"

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SUMMER TERM 



OF THE 



Western 
State Normal School 

KALAMAZOO, MICH. 



Monday, June 30 to Friday, August 8 
1913 



FACULTY OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL 



D. B. WALDO, A. M., President 
*EDITH BARNUM, 

First and Second Grades, Training School. 
*DORA I. BUCKINGHAM, 

Assistant, Kindergarten. 
ERNEST BURNHAM, Ph. D., 

Director of Rural School Department. 
C. H. CARRICK, A. B., Superintendent of Schools, Charlotte, 

Geography. 
W. E. CONKLING, Superintendent of Schools, Hastings, Mich., 

Civics. 
MARY ENSFLELD, A. B., 

Rural School Department. 
*JOHN B. FAUGHT, Ph. D., 

Mathematics. 
ELVA FORNCROOK, A. B., 

Expression. 
JOHN E. FOX, A. B., 

Physics. 
HELEN FROST, 

Physical Training. 
*LUCY GAGE, 

Director of Kindergarten. 
EMELIA M. GOLDSWORTHY, 

Public School Art. 
BESSIE B. GOODRICH, 

Rural School Department. 
CYNTHIA A. GREEN, Commissioner of Schools, Eaton 
County, 

Rural School Management. 
HILDRED HANSON, 

Public School Music. 
LUCIA HARRISON, A. B., 

History. 
L. H. HARVEY, Ph. D, 

Biology. 
T. PAUL HICKEY, A. B., 

History. 
J. C. HOCKENBERRY, Ph. D., 

Education. 



4 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

*BEULAH HOOTMAN, 

Public School Music. 
FRED S. HUFF, Kalamazoo Public Schools, 

Manual Training. 
V. R. HUNGERFORD, A. M., Commissioner of Schools, Van 
Buren County, 

History. 
GEORGE JILLSON, A. B, 

Mathematics. 
ELIZABETH JOHNSON, 

Fourth Grade, Training School. 
J. HOWARD JOHNSON, A. B. t 

Chemistry. 
*ADELE M. JONES, B. S., 

Domestic Art. 

B. L. JONES, A. B., 

English Language and Literature. 
*MATIE -LEE JONES, 

Physical Training. 
ELEANOR JUDSON, 

Public School Art. 
CATHERINE KOCH, B. S., 

Nature Study and Agriculture. 
ALICE L. MARSH, B. S., 

English. 
HARPER C. MAYBEE, 

Public School Music. 

*william Mccracken, Ph. d., 

Chemistry. 
NELLIE M'CONNELL, 

Second Grade, Training School. 
MARY A. MOORE, 

Domestic Science. 
KATHERINE MULRY, 

Sixth Grade, Training School. 

C. L. NASH, B. S., Teacher of Agriculture, Union City Schools, 

Agriculture. 
S. B. NORCROSS, 

Penmanship. 
. OTWELL, Commissioner of Schools, Berrien County, 
Arithmetic. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/summertermofwest1913west 



SUMMER BULLETIN 5 

MAUDE PARSONS, A. B, 

Latin, 
FLORENCE PRAY, B. S., 

Domestic Science. 
ROBERT M. REINHOLD, B. Pd., 

Education and Normal Extension. 
F. E. ROBINSON, Superintendent of Schools, Bronson, 

Rural School Department. 
*G. EDITH SEEKELL, 

Eighth Grade, Training School. 
M. J. SHERWOOD, 

Manual Training. 
W. H. SPAULDING, A. B., 

Director of Athletics. 
LAVINA SPINDLER, 

Director of Training School. 
GEORGE SPRAU, A. M., 

English Language and Literature. 
PAUL C. STETSON, A. B., Grand Rapids High School, 

Education. 
*GRACE THOMASMA, 

Fifth Grade, Training School. 
EMELIE TOWNSEND, B. S., 

Education. 
CHARLOTTE A. WAITE, B. S., Kalamazoo Public Schools, 

Domestic Art. 
GEORGE S. WAITE, 

Manual Training. 
*CAROLINE WAKEMAN, Ph. B., 

History. 
L. H. WOOD, A. M., 

Geography. 
ELISABETH ZIMMERMAN, A. B, 

German. 
ESTHER BRALEY, A. B., 

Librarian. 
*ANNA L. FRENCH, 

Assistant Librarian. 
KATHERINE NEWTON, 

Secretary. 
KATHERINE SHEAN, 

Assistant Secretary. 
MARIE C. COLE, Clerk, Training School. 

* Absent on leave. 



Summer Term of the Western 
State Normal School 



THE tenth annual summer term of the Western State 
Normal School will open June 30 and continue six weeks, 
closing August 8. Students will be enrolled and classi- 
fied on Monday, June 30, and classes in all departments will 
begin recitations on Tuesday, July 1. Nearly all of the regular 
instructors of the Normal School will remain in residence dur- 
ing the Summer Term, and will be assisted by a number of out- 
side teachers, selected for their efficiency in special lines of 
work. 

LOCATION 

The Western State Normal School is located at Kalamazoo, 
the County Seat of Kalamazoo County, in the heart of South- 
western Michigan. In beauty, in accessibility, in general edu- 
cational advantages, this thriving city of forty thousand inhabi- 
tants affords an ideal location for the school. 

Kalamazoo is at the intersection of the great lines of travel 
in Western Michigan. It is the half-way point between Detroit 
and Chicago on the main line of the Michigan Central Railway, 
which is here crossed by the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Chicago, Kalamazoo & 
Saginaw railroads, all running north and south. It is the east- 
ern terminus of the South Haven branch of the Michigan Cen- 
tral which gives excellent connections with Chicago by boat. It 
is also the eastern terminus of the Kalamazoo, Lake Shore & 
Chicago Railroad. The Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway now 
has direct connection with the main line of that road by way of 
Pavilion. The electric lines of the Michigan United Traction 
Company give trolley connections with the eastern part of the 
State via Battle Creek and Jackson. On the various steam rail- 
ways more than fifty trains arrive and depart daily, giving ex- 
cellent connections with the surrounding territory. 

The advantages of Kalamazoo as a place of residence are 



SUMMER BULLETIN 7 

unquestioned. The city is beautiful in situation, and is well 
kept. The climate is healthful, the water supply excellent, and 
the sanitary conditions are unusually good. Situated in the cen- 
ter of a fine farming country, it is itself widely known for its 
diversified industries. 



PURPOSE OF THE SCHOOL 

The object of the school as constituted by law is to prepare 
teachers for public school service. The work of the school is 
organized and conducted essentially to this end. It is recog- 
nized that scholarship, knowledge of child nature, and a proper 
attitude toward the work of teaching are the three essential 
factors in all professional preparation for teachers. The course 
of study in the Western State Normal School has been planned 
with the purpose of providing for these ends by giving as thor- 
ough knowledge of the subject-matter as possible in the time 
devoted to the work by emphasizing the principles underlying 
the educational process, and by keeping before the mind of the 
student the realization that the highest aim of education is 
character. All facilities possible will be offered for the further- 
ance of these purposes and for bringing the student into contact 
with the best in modern thought and life. The spirit of hearty 
cooperation between faculty and students in enterprises and 
interests of the school will be fostered at all times. 

The responsibility for the proper attitude of students toward 
the school and community is necessarily for the most part 
thrown upon the students themselves. While it is the purpose 
of the school to incite the student continually to higher and 
better ideals of character and public service, it is impracticable 
for a Normal School to attempt the task of reforming young 
men and young women. No personal effort will be spared in 
assisting students in every possible way. But those who are 
manifestly lacking in the essentials of good character, or in 
ability to become efficient instructors of children, will be re- 
quested, whenever the evidence of their unfitness is complete, 
to withdraw from the school. 

During the Summer Term special attention will be given to 
those who are already teaching. Courses of study, plans of 
work, methods of instruction, will be shaped to the needs of 
teachers now engaged in the profession. 



8 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

BUILDINGS 

The classes of the regular certificate courses will meet as 
heretofore in the Normal Building. This structure contains, in 
addition to the administration offices, fourteen class-rooms, an 
assembly room, and laboratory facilities for work in biological 
and physical sciences. The site occupied by the building is al- 
ready well known for the panoramic view afforded of Kala- 
mazoo city and the Kalamazoo River valley. 

Review classes will meet in the training building. The train- 
ing building is a splendid structure with two stories and a base- 
ment, 118 feet long and 100 feet wide. This structure is re- 
garded as one of the best planned of its kind in the entire 
country. In completeness and convenience the building is a 
model. 

The gymnasium is the largest of its kind to be found among 
the normal schools and colleges of the Northwest Territory. 
The main room is 119 feet long and 68 feet wide, the floor 
being entirely clear of posts or obstructions of any kind. The 
running track, 12 feet above the main floor, is suspended from 
the structural steel supporting the roof. The track is 9j^ feet 
in width, and has sloping sides and ends as well as raised cor- 
ners. In the basement are shower baths for both men and 
women, and a swimming pool 52 feet long. All classes in public 
school gymnastics will meet in the gymnasium. 

EQUIPMENT 

The library now numbers over 9,500 volumes, and consists 
entirely of good working material. It has been selected from 
the latest as well as the standard authors in the various depart- 
ments. The stacks are open to all students during the summer 
term. Students of the Western Normal are also permitted to 
use the Kalamazoo city library which now numbers 44,000 
volumes. 

The departments of physics and chemistry are well supplied 
with apparatus and there are facilities for effective work in 
biology. The department of geography is splendidly equipped 
with all needed apparatus. The departments of manual training, 
domestic art and domestic science are well supplied with the 
equipment needed for first-class work. 





(1) Tennis Courts 
(2) Reab Entrance to Normal 



SUMMER BULLETIN 



THE RAILROAD 



Students having recitations at the Normal building will be 
afforded free transportation on the two-track railway belonging 
to the Normal School. Two cars will be in operation daily dur- 
ing the entire summer, thus removing all objections on the part 
of those who find hill climbing irksome. 

FEES AND LIVING EXPENSES 

Students in all courses who are residents of Michigan will 
pay a fee of $3 for the term. Students who reside in other 
states or foreign countries will pay a fee of $5 for the term. 
This small tuition fee admits to all classes. No charge is made 
for the special lecture courses offered during the summer term. 
All students pay an athletic fee of fifty cents. 

Board in clubs costs about $3 per week, and rooms con- 
veniently located and suitably furnished may be obtained at a 
cost ranging in price from 75 cents to $1.00 per week for each 
student. The total expense for the summer term should not 
exceed $35 to $40. 

THE NORMAL CO-OPERATIVE STORE 

The Normal co-operative store which has been in operation 
during the past year will be open during the summer term, 
affording opportunity for students to purchase books and other 
necessary supplies on the campus. 

CREDIT 

Credits applying on the certificate courses may be earned 
in any of the subjects regularly required. Twenty-four weeks 
(one-half of a full term's credit) is usually the maximum credit 
for any student during the summer term. Classes reciting daily 
ordinarily earn six weeks' credit, while those reciting twice 
each day earn twelve weeks' credit. Review classes are not 
credited on the certificate courses except in the Rural School 
department. 

DEMAND FOR TEACHERS 

There is an increasing demand for trained teachers through- 
out the state and in the country at large. The trend of salaries 
is upward, and teaching is nearer a profession than ever be- 
fore. Graduates of the Western Normal are in great demand, 



10 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

and much care is exercised in placing students of the school 
where the likelihood of success and the opportunity to serve 
are greatest. 

The city of Kalamazoo affords many opportunities for re- 
munerative employment both, for young men and young women. 
Students desiring work with a view to lessening the expense 
of attending school are assisted in securing employment of 
various kinds. 



ATHLETICS AND SOCIAL FEATURES 

Due attention will be given to various forms of athletics 
during the summer term. Baseball and tennis will be promi- 
nent features of outdoor athletics. Five tennis courts will be 
at the disposal of students, and attention will also be given to 
other outdoor games and sports that may be used in public 
schools. 

As in former years, a social committee, selected from the 
faculty, will provide special features of entertainment with a 
view to securing a variety of interests and affording opportu- 
nities for extending acquaintanceship among the students. 

Social gatherings similar to those of last summer, which 
will be so pleasantly remembered by all students who were in 
attendance, will be included in the general program which has 
been planned for the enjoyment of members of the summer 
school. 

GENERAL STUDENT PARTIES 

Wednesday evening, July 9, 8 p. m., School Party. 
Wednesday evening, July 16, 8 p. m., School Party. 
Wednesday evening, July 30, 8 p. m., School Party. 

COURSES OFFERED 

The work offered in the summer term is as follows: 

1. Regular Certificate Courses. 

2. Review Courses. 

3. Extension Course. 

4. Lectures. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 11 

REGULAR CERTIFICATE COURSES 

A large number of classes will be formed in the branches 
included in the regular certificate courses. Several of these 
classes in the Life Certificate and Graded Certificate groups 
will meet twice daily, thus enabling a student to cover the work 
of two twelve-weeks studies during the summer term. Classes 
will be formed in a wide variety of subjects in the departments 
of Psychology and Education, English Language and Litera- 
ture, Expression, Geography, Science, Mathematics, History and 
Civics, German and Latin, Drawing, Music, Manual Training, 
Domestic Economy, Kindergarten Theory, Library Methods, and 
Physical Training. 

REVIEW COURSES 

Review classes will be formed in all of the common school 
branches. These classes will be of special benefit to students 
and teachers who are preparing for the county examinations to 
be held in August. Opportunity will be offered for reviewing 
subjects included in the first, second, and third grade examina- 
tions. There will be no summer schools or institutes this year 
in the counties near Kalamazoo, and all teachers are urged to 
take advantage of the unusual privileges offered at the Western 
State Normal. Credits earned during the six weeks' term are 
recorded, and in some subjects apply on certificate courses. 
There will be thorough reviews, and in addition courses will 
be so arranged in many subjects that students attending two 
or more summer terms may pursue work in a given study with- 
out duplicating subject-matter. 

The subjects in which review courses will be offered are 
Physiology, United States History, Civil Government, Gram- 
mar, Arithmetic, Geography, Reading, Orthography, Theory 
and Art of Teaching, School Law, Course of Study, Algebra, 
Botany, General History, Physics, and Geometry. 

EXTENSION COURSE 

In 1905 the State Board authorized the granting of an ex- 
tension life certificate to mature students who (1) are high 
school graduates, (2) have taught six years, and (3) under the 
direction of the Western State Normal School faculty have 
completed work as follows : (a) three summer terms in resi- 
dence, (b) two years of non-resident work. This non-resident 
work is either (1) class work at some center within range of 



12 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

the school so that an instructor can meet the students once a 
week, usually on Saturdays, or (2) carefully organized courses 
taken by correspondence. 

The Western State Normal School, from its foundation, has 
permitted properly qualified students to avail themselves of this 
opportunity. During the past six years seventy-nine students 
have completed this course. 

The object of this arrangement has been to meet the needs 
of those who are otherwise deprived of opportunities for growth 
and advancement. The danger that in some cases has been 
anticipated that students by taking this course would be led 
aside from undertaking resident study, has not proved real; 
in fact, one of the important results has been the number of 
students who, after undertaking the extension course, have 
come to see that it was more possible than they had thought to 
enter upon and complete the life certificate course in residence. 

A higher grade of work is necessary to satisfy the require- 
ments than the average of class residence accomplishment. It 
is the student whose experience has trained him to effective 
methods of organization who can profit most by studying under 
the direction of an absent instructor. 

A special announcement of this department has been printed, 
which will be furnished on application to the Secretary. 

LECTURES 

As heretofore, the Normal will offer unusual privileges this 
summer in the way of lecture courses by distinguished edu- 
cators. A prominent lecturer will be at the school during each 
week of the term, and the discussions will be along the lines 
that are of interest to progressive teachers. 

It has been decided to limit the number of lecture days 
each week, so as to leave three or four afternoons open to field 
work, recreation, and athletics. Hours have been carefully ar- 
ranged for the lecture courses to avoid conflict with classes 
and other important features of the summer school. 

Dr. S. D. Fess, president of Antioch College, will deliver an 
address on a topic in American History. Dr. Fess is one of 
the ablest and most inspiring lecturers on the American plat- 
form. He lias recently been elected a member of Congress 
from Ohio, and his entry upon public duties will give added 
his address before the students of the summer term. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 13 

Tuesday, July 8, Dr. Lotus Coffman, of the University of 
Illinois, will speak on "Current Criticisms of the Public Schools." 
Dr. Coffman has had a varied experience in public school ad- 
ministration, and for some time was director of the training 
school of the Charleston (111.) Normal School. He is at present 
in charge of the work in Public School Administration in the 
University of Illinois, and is a speaker of rare force and 
directness. 

Thursday, July 17, Mr. Charles Seymour, who lectured at 
the Western Normal during the summer terms of 1907 and 1912, 
will deliver two addresses. Mr. Seymour has met with unusual 
success in presenting historical subjects before university and 
college audiences and to teachers' associations and institutes. 
Mr. Seymour's lectures represent first-hand study under advan- 
tageous conditions, as he has carried on research studies in 
libraries of Europe as well as of the United States. He has 
personally visited the places where the events pictured by him 
occurred and where his characters lived. His topics will be 
Sir Walter Raleigh and Francesco Pizarro. 

Redpath Chautauqua, July 22 to 28. The Redpath Chau- 
tauqua will be in session on the Normal campus for seven 
days. Programs will be given morning, afternoon, and eve- 
ning. Students will be interested especially in the afternoon 
and evening programs. Prominent lecturers and musical organi- 
zations will appear. A special admission rate of one dollar will 
be offered to students of the Normal School. This will admit 
to the entire program for the week. 

Wednesday, July 30, Dr. Charles H. Judd, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, will lecture on "Changes in the Course of Study 
Which Should Be Made to Meet the General Demand for In- 
dustrial Education." Dr. Judd is most pleasantly remembered 
by former students who were at the Western State Normal dur- 
ing the summer sessions of 1909, 1910, and 1912. He is one of 
the ablest students of education in the United States, and in 
clear, forceful, and inspiring discussion of educational problems 
holds high rank. 

Concert, Tuesday, August 5. A concert of high grade will 
be given during the summer term. Mr. Harper C. Maybee and 
Miss Hildred Hanson of the Normal will have general direction 
of the same, and it is planned to give a program of unusual 
excellence. 



14 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

DETAILS OF DEPARTMENTS 



Courses bearing numbers from 1 to 99 are offered in the 
Review, High School, and Rural Departments; those from 101 
to 199 receive credit in the Graded School and Life Certificate 
Courses. 

Courses in the High School and Rural School Departments 
which are the same as the courses in the Graded School and 
Life Certificate work, are given the numbers of the latter. 

ART 

GRADED AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Drawing from Nature. This course aims to enlarge 
the appreciation and knowledge of the world of nature by ex- 
pressing various phases of the landscape, also by the study and 
expression of flowers, grasses, fruits, and other nature sub- 
jects, including figure and animal studies in various mediums, 
pencil, crayon, and water-color. The nature motifs studied 
form the basis for problems in design which are applied to 
practical school problems. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS, GOLDS WORTHY. 

102. Perspective. This course aims to enlarge the appre- 
ciation and understanding of the common forms around us, 
and to develop knowledge and skill in rendering the appear- 
ance of forms included under the study of cylindrical and 
rectangular perspective. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS GOLDSWORTHY. 

103. Construction. This course takes up the subject of 
hand work in the grades, and includes the working out of sim- 
ple problems in weaving, basketry, clay modeling, stenciling, and 
bookbinding. This course may be taken without previous courses 
in Art. 6 weeks' credit. 

105. Advanced Art. Pictorial and Decorative Composition. 
This course will continue work commenced in Art 101, and in- 
cludes more advanced work from nature, along the lines of 
pictorial and decorative composition. Outdoor sketching will 
be a feature of the work. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS GOLDSWORTHY. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 15 

BIOLOGY 

REVIEW, RURAL AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES 

10. Physiology. An elementary review course for teachers 
preparing for the fall examinations. While the functions of 
the various systems of the body will be especially emphasized, 
yet enough anatomy will be given to furnish an understanding 
of the various organs. Peabody's Physiology will form the 
basis of the course. Bring all available text-books. 

DR. HARVEY. 

11. Botany. A review course designed to prepare teachers 
for the county examination. Bergen's Elements of Botany will 
form the basis of this course. Bring all text-books available. 
Four periods a week. DR. HARVEY. 

12. Agriculture. Text-book, field trips, garden and labo- 
ratory. Based on best available text-books for elementary and 
high school courses. Students should bring whatever agricul- 
ture text-books they have. Several sections will be formed to 
accommodate those who are beginning as well as those who 
have made some progress in the subject. 6 weeks' credit in 
Rural School courses. MISS KOCH. 

MR. NASH. 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

III. Nature Study. The place of Nature Study in the 
curricula of the elementary and rural school is definitely assured. 
Most teachers feel a lack of preparation not only in regard 
to subject-matter, but in methods of presentation. The pur- 
pose of this course is to present the ideals and methods of 
nature study, to acquaint the student with available materials 
and give him a grasp of the literature of the subject. School 
gardens receive attention. Seasonal phenomena of plant and 
animal life are treated. Field and laboratory work are devoted 
to identification and ecology of our common plant and animal 
forms — especial stress being placed upon tree, bird, flower, and 
insect study. Kalamazoo offers in its diverse habitats many 
localities of unusual interest, making an ideal center for Nature 
Study work. Students should bring clothing suitable for tramp- 
ing, collecting cases, hand lenses, etc. Four afternoons of each 
week will be devoted to the work. Substitutes for Biology 107 
in meeting requirements. 12 weeks' credit. DR. HARVEY. 

MISS KOCH. 



16 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

CHEMISTRY 

REVIEW AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

1, 2. General Inorganic Chemistry. This course will be 
devoted to a study of either the metals or the non-metals ac- 
cording to the needs of those taking the course. Laboratory 
work is required. Twice daily, 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. JOHNSON. 

4. Review Chemistry, This course will include a rapid 
review of the whole field of inorganic chemistry. Especial 
stress will be laid upon the mathematical, theoretical, and com- 
mercial aspects of the subject. Once daily. No credit. 

MR. JOHNSON. 

5. Qualitative Analysis, corresponding to Course 105 of 
the regular school year. Lectures twice a week. Laboratory 
work arranged to suit the needs of those taking the course. 
Either 6 or 12 weeks' credit. MR. JOHNSON. 

6. Chemistry for the Grades. This is a nature study 
course corresponding to Course 109 of the regular school year. 
A study will be made of some of the common elements — oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, carbon, sulphur, — and of some 
of the more common and important compounds used by man. 
There will be used for illustration a series of simple experi- 
ments capable of being used in the grades. Twice daily. 12 
weeks' credit. MR. JOHNSON. 

PHYSICS 

REVIEW AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

Review Physics. This course is designed for those who 
have had a year's work in physics and who wish to review the 
subject for second grade, first grade, or state life certificate ex- 
aminations. It is also designed for those who wish to increase 
their efficiency as teachers of physics in the schools. Class meets 
twice daily. MR. FOX. 

102a. Physics for Grade Teachers. The aim of this course 
is to help students to grasp the underlying principles of physics 



SUMMER BULLETIN 17 

so essential to an understanding of general science work in the 
grades. The course presupposes a year's work in high school 
physics. 6 weeks' credit. MR. FOX. 

Physical Laboratory Work. Arrangements will be made 
for those who wish to do laboratory work, to fit the needs of 
the pupil. Credit will depend upon the work accomplished. 

MR. FOX. 

DOMESTIC ART 

103a. Plain Sewing. A combination of machine and hand 
work in making of a four-piece suit of underwear. Discus- 
sions on pattern making, materials, and various methods of 
finishing and trimming. 6 weeks' credit. MISS WAITE. 

103b. Dressmaking. This course aims to give the student 
a practical knowledge of drafting, designing, making, fitting, 
and finishing tailored shirt waist suits and simple summer 
dresses. Each student will make a shirt waist and tailored 
skirt of a suitable cotton or linen material, and a simple muslin 
dress. 6 weeks credit. MISS WAITE. 

110. Art Needlework. The object of this course is to 
acquaint the student with various kinds of embroidery and 
artistic needlework. The work will include applique, hem- 
stitching, simple drawn work, feather stitching, Bermuda fag- 
oting, fancy darning, scalloped edges, dots, eyelets, and French 
embroidery, applied to household linens, pillows, table run- 
ners, and articles of clothing. 6 weeks' credit. MISS WAITE. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE 

107. Cooking. This course offers practical work in the cook- 
ing of all classes of foods, such as cereals, vegetables, meat, eggs, 
bread, pastry, salads, and desserts. 

The work is planned to meet the needs of those outside of 
the Domestic Science department who desire practical work in 
cooking. Six weeks' credit will be given, but will not apply on 
the two-year course in Domestic Science. MISS PRAY. 

108. Cooking. This course includes the planning, cooking, 
and serving of meals at various costs. It is desired that those 
entering this class should have had some work in cooking. A 
credit of 6 weeks will be given, but it will not apply on the 
two-year course in Domestic Science. MISS PRAY. 



18 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

EDUCATION 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Elementary Psychology. The greater part of the 
time of this course will be given to gaining facility in dealing 
with the problems of elementary psychology and in the use of 
the necessary vocabulary and materials. It is intended also to 
lay the foundation for the student's later work in education 
and especially to assist him to a better understanding and con- 
trol of his own methods of study. Required in Graded School 
and all Life Certificate Courses. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. STETSON. 

102. Child Study. By means of definite assignments for 
observation and the careful study of children, the student will 
have opportunity to gain further acquaintance with the inter- 
ests and activities of the various stages of child life and youth. 
This will be supplemented by the reading of some of the more 
significant studies that have been made and by acquaintance 
with the more important conclusions and problems that have 
been formulated. Required in Graded School and General Life 
Certificate Courses. Prerequisite, Course 101. 6 weeks' credit. 

MISS TOWNSEND. 

106. History of Modern Education. The development of 
the school in its relation to other social organizations. Espe- 
cial attention will be given to the historical conditions and 
the men most significant in the understanding of present-day 
problems. Required in all Life Certificate Courses. Pre- 
requisite, 102, 103, 104, or 105. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS TOWNSEND. 

107. Advanced Psychology. The aim of this course is a 
careful study of such problems in psychology and education 
as the learning process, the reasoning process, habituation and 
inhibition in the light of the student's previous experience and 
training and with the aid of as much experimentation as is 
practicable in the class and in small groups of the class. It 
will be aimed so to formulate the results of this study as to 
make it serviceable in teaching and as a basis for independent 
study and research. Prerequisite, 101. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. REINHOLD. 

108. School Organization and Administration. This course 



SUMMER BULLETIN 19 

is intended primarily for those students who are or intend to 
be superintendents or principals of schools. It will be of value, 
however, to other teachers who wish to understand better the 
conditions of efficiency in school relationships. A study will 
be made of some of the books and periodical literature of the 
subject in an effort to determine influences which are manifest- 
ing themselves in school supervision, curricula, organizations, 
etc. Elective. 6 weeks' credit. MR. REINHOLD. 

110. The Philosophy of Education. In this course it will 
be the endeavor to gain some idea of the principles of educa- 
tion in accordance with the relevant laws of biology, psychology, 
sociology, and philosophy. Assignments will be made to the 
writings of Rosenkranz, Tate, Cole, Dewey, MacVannel, and 
others who have attempted to state the nature of education in 
the light of its broader and deeper aspects. Elective. 6 weeks' 
credit. DR. HOCKENBERRY. 

111. Pedagogical Seminar. This course will study some of 
the construction lines of modern education. 

DR. HOCKENBERRY. 

ENGLISH 

REVIEW, RURAL AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES 

7. Preparatory Grammar. The purpose of this course is 
a thorough review for those who are making preparation for 
the county examinations. It is not accepted as credit for the 
course in Grammar. A part of the questions in the August 
grammar examination will be based on Wyche's "The Short 
Story and How to Tell It." 

99. Preparatory Composition. The elements of composition 
are treated under both form and content. The course deals 
with punctuation, word usage, paragraph and sentence struc- 
ture, and business and social forms in letter writing. Daily 
practice is afforded in both oral and written composition. 12 
weeks' credit. MISS MARSH. 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Composition. The aim of this course is to stimulate 
thinking and to arrange the result of one's thinking with a view 
to clear and effective expression in the English language. Some 
attention is given to the conventional mechanics of writing, such 



20 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

as spelling, punctuation, and paragraphing; but special emphasis 
is placed on thinking and organizing thought. With this end 
in view, some stimulating book will be read together, and much 
time will be devoted to oral and written presentation of inter- 
esting lines of thought suggested. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. SPRAU. 

103. Literary Material for the Grades. (Course 102 pre- 
requisite.) The purpose of this course is to introduce the stu- 
dent teacher to material which is adapted to his work in the 
training school or for later independent class-room experience. 
One hour is devoted daily to discussion and criticism (1) of 
chapters in MacClintock's "Literature in the Elementary School" ; 
(2) of literary material mentioned in MacClintock considered 
from the points of view of its fitness for children in school, 
and of its value as real literature. The second hour is given 
up to lectures on the principles of literary criticism and child 
study as related to literature; these lectures are supplemented 
by suggestions for guidance in reading and for the making of 
bibliographies. Required in Life and Graded School Courses. 
12 weeks' credit. MR. JONES. 

109. Tennyson and Browning. As much as possible of the 
writings of these men will be read, supplemented by interpreta- 
tive lectures on the main currents of thought of the nineteenth 
century as it found artistic expression in the poetry of England's 
greatest poets of the period. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. SPRAU. 

114. Advanced Grammar. This course will include a brief 
consideration of the history of the teaching of grammar, and a 
series of brief studies such as: (1) To what extent does the 
finite verb agree with the subject? (2) The so-called "Short 
Circuit, or Short Word Group, in English Syntax." (3) Ad- 
vantages and disadvantages arising from the use of the diagram. 
(4) The English word-order. (5) A consideration of certain 
fallacious or misleading teachings in modern school-grammars. 
(6) Grammar in the Elementary School. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS MARSH. 

115. English and Scottish Ballads. Some attention will be 
paid to the origin of ballads, and of minor epic poems. Most 
of the time in class will be spent in reading the ballads them- 
selves, the reading to be supplemented by class discussion. Sar- 
gent and Kittridge's "English and Scottish Ballads" (Cambridge 
Edition) will be used. 12 weeks' credit. MR. JONES. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 21 

EXPRESSION 

REVIEW COURSES 

1. Reading and Orthography. A careful study will be made 
of Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice." This book forms the 
basis for the county teachers' examinations in Reading in Au- 
gust. In Orthography a thorough study of Pattengill's Orthog- 
raphy will be made. MISS ENSFIELD. 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Reading. A study of the elements of expression and 
the application of these principles in reading of classic selec- 
tions. The course aims to develop expressive reading and 
effective teaching of reading. It puts special emphasis on 
fundamental principles, and therefore should precede other 
courses. 12 weeks' credit. MISS FORNCROOK. 

103. Story Telling. A study of the purposes of story tell- 
ing in school, and of selection of stories. Daily practice in tell- 
ing stories should be preceded by English 103. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS FORNCROOK. 

104. Debate and Informal Speaking. Aims to develop ease 
in public speaking. Discussion of general topics and leading 
questions of the day. 6 weeks' credit. MISS FORNCROOK. 

105. Drama and Festival. Study and interpretation of 
standard and modern plays or scenes from them. Aims to 
develop dramatic imagination and sympathy, to cultivate ability 
to read drama interpretively and to give prospective teachers 
training in the staging of plays. Some time will also be given 
to the preparation and presentation of festivals. 12 weeks' 
credit. MISS FORNCROOK. 

Courses 103, 104, or 105 offered according to wishes of stu- 
dents. 

GEOGRAPHY 

REVIEW COURSE 
5. Review Geography. This review course is planned to 
prepare for the examinations in August and October. One-half 
the questions in Geography for the August examination will be 
based on "The Teaching of Geography," by Sutherland. 

MR. CARRICK. 



22 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101A. Meteorology and Climatology. In this course, which 
is an integral part of the work in general geography offered by 
the department, the chief emphasis is placed upon the distribu- 
tion of those climatic elements that condition the distribution of 
life on the earth. 6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD. 

101B. Physiography of the Land Forms. Study of the 
origin and distribution of the various land forms of the earth's 
surface by means of topographic maps and field exercises. The 
course also includes a brief study of the chief rocks and minerals. 
6 weeks credit. MR. WOOD. 

104. Regional Geography. A study of the leading nations 
of Europe. 6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD. 

106. Industrial and Commercial Geography on the basis 
of the geography of Michigan. 6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD. 

GERMAN 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Elementary Course. Twice daily. The aim of this 
course is to give the student a knowledge of the rudiments of 
German grammar and facility in reading and reproducing easy 
German. A number of texts will be read and discussed in Ger- 
man. 12 weeks' credit. MISS ZIMMERMAN. 

114. Advanced Course. The study of some drama or prose 
narrative, to be selected to meet the needs of the class. A re- 
view of German grammar and syntax and practice in speaking 
and writing the language. 6 weeks' credit. 

MISS ZIMMERMAN. 

115. Teacher's Course. This will be primarily a course in 
German conversation, especially designed for those who feel 
that their knowledge of the spoken language is inadequate for 
present-day demands in modern language instruction. The work 
will consist of discussion of German texts in German and the 
writing of compositions and reproductions. 6 to 12 weeks' 
credit. MISS ZIMMERMAN. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 23 

HISTORY 

REVIEW, RURAL AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES 

12. General History. A review course for students ex- 
pecting to take the examination for second grade certificate. 
The class will meet twice daily. 12 weeks' credit in High School 
Course. MISS HARRISON. 

13. United States History. A review course to meet the 
needs of students preparing for the August and October 
examinations. Four sections will be formed and a credit of 12 
weeks in Rural School course may be earned. 

MR. HUNGERFORD. 

14. Civil Government. This course is planned primarily 
for students who wish to prepare for the August and October 
examinations. Four sections will be formed. Bring any text- 
books available. MR. CONKLING. 

GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101-2. United States History. Emphasis will be laid upon 
the different periods according to the needs of the class. Spe- 
cial attention will be given to choice of subject-matter and 
bibliography suitable for grade work. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. HICKEY. 
104. Roman History. The Romans as missionaries of Greek 
culture; Roman institutions; their influence on the political 
organization of Modern Europe. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS HARRISON. 
106. Europe, 1643-1815. A study of important historical 
developments in Europe, with particular emphasis on the French 
Revolution and Napoleonic periods. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. HICKEY. 

LATIN 

REVIEW, RURAL AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES 

1. Beginning Latin, reciting twice daily. It is planned to 
cover the work of one term. 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS PARSONS. 

2. Latin Composition. This course is designed for those 
who are preparing to teach Latin, and those who have taught 
but feel the need of added drill in writing Latin. 6 weeks' 
credit. MISS PARSONS. 



24 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

4, 7, or 10. Advanced Latin. Classes will be formed for 
those desiring work in Caesar, Cicero, or Virgil. These courses 
are designed for those who wish to continue the study of one 
of these authors "in absentia," and the aim will be to give the 
student an insight into the life of the author, the historical 
background, and the method of study, which will enable him to 
continue the work without a teacher. 6 to 12 weeks' credit. 

MISS PARSONS. 

LIBRARY METHODS FOR TEACHERS 

The course in Library Methods for Teachers arranged by 
the State Board of Library Commissioners, will extend through 
the six weeks of the Summer School. Instruction will be 
given daily in the form of lectures and practical problems in 
connection with the Commission's special library. 

101. Library Methods. Two courses will be given : one in 
the elementary methods of library administration, accession, 
classification, cataloguing, etc. — given with the purpose of mak- 
ing it possible for the teacher in charge of the school library to 
care for it and use it in the most efficient way, rather than for 
the purpose of training professional librarians. 6 weeks' credit. 

MISS BRALEY. 

102. Library Methods. The second course will include more 
general work, — daily discussion of children's books taken from 
the selected library, use of lists and bibliographies, and one week 
each of lectures on Children's Reading and on Reference Books, 
given by specialists in these branches, sent by the Library Com- 
mission. The purpose of the work is to acquaint teachers with 
the best and most helpful material and method for work sup- 
plementary to the regular curriculum. 6 weeks' credit. 

MISS BRALEY. 

MANUAL TRAINING 

The Manual Training classes in Shop Work will be given in 
the new Kalamazoo Manual Training School. The shops of the 
new building have been splendidly equipped with machinery for 
wood-turning, pattern-making, and blacksmithing. Equipment 
for the machine shop and foundry will be installed before the 
opening of the summer term. The highest grade of machinery 




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SUMMER BULLETIN 25 

and general equipment has been purchased. Graduates and oth- 
ers prepared to take advanced work are requested to notify Mr. 
George S. Waite, director of Manual Training, before the open- 
ing of the term as it is planned to limit the attendance to the 
number that can be properly handled. During the summer term 
classes in Manual Training will visit several of the shops and 
industries of Kalamazoo and vicinity. 

102. Manual Training. Instruction in wood and other mate- 
rials suitable for the pupils in the fifth and sixth grades. 12 
weeks' credit. MR. WAITE. 

103. Manual Training. Instruction in woodworking shops 
suitable for students of the seventh and eighth grades. Work in 
various kinds of wood, the use of woodworking tools of all 
kinds, and the finishing of the objects made. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. SHERWOOD. 

104. Manual Training, (a) More advanced work in cabinet 
making and joinery, and elementary wood turning. 12 weeks' 
credit. MR. SHERWOOD. 

105. Manual Training. Advanced wood turning, pattern mak- 
ing, molding and casting of patterns made. 12 weeks credit. 

MR. SHERWOOD. 

106. Manual Training. Forging exercises in drawing, upset- 
ting, twisting, welding, tempering of iron and steel; ornamental 
work in iron; chipping, filing, and fitting metals; use of drill 
press and engine lathe. 12 weeks' credit. MR. SHERWOOD. 

107-8. Economics of Manual Art. Development of manual 
training in the United States; organization of courses of study; 
planning of rooms and buildings; selection and purchase of tools 
and materials; supervision of manual training work; manual 
training and technical schools of England, Scotland, and Wales; 
lectures and discussions; topical reports. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. WAITE. 

109. Mechanical Drawing. Consists of simple elementary 
and geometrical problems, the use of instruments, plans, and 
elevations of simple objects, and simple lettering. 12 weeks' 
credit. MR. HUFF. 

110. Mechanical Drawing. Continuation of geometrical 
problems, more advanced drawings of objects, drawings of shop 
exercises, and lettering. 12 weeks' credit. MR. HUFF. 



26 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

111. Mechanical Drawing. Orthographic projections devel- 
opment of surfaces and sheet metal patterns, machine drawings. 
12 weeks' credit. MR. HUFF. 

112. Mechanical Drawing. Isometric drawing, mechanical 
shading, and drawings, designs for equipment of woodworking 
rooms, tracings and blue prints. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. HUFF. 

113. Mechanical Drawing. Mechanical shading of drawings 
including tinting in colors, plans of schoolrooms showing equip- 
ments, designs for shop exercises, machine drawings. Plans, 
elevations, details, specifications, tracings, and blue prints of a 
manual training building. 12 weeks' credit. MR. HUFF. 

114. Foundry Practice. This course will include molding 
of patterns and casting of same. Use of cupola and crucibles. 
The foundry room will be equipped with facilities for this work. 
This course requires previous experience in pattern making. 
Students desiring to take this work must enroll if possible before 
the summer term. 

115. Machine Shop Practice. Iron working machinery, in- 
cluding lathes, shapers, planers, grinders, drill press and the 
use of same. Constructing machinery, repairing machinery, and 
making of tools. Those desiring work in this class must notify 
the instructor before the Normal School opens, as the number 
taken will be limited. This work will require some previous 
knowledge of machinery. 

In the manual training courses instruction is given regarding 
materials and topical reports are required. In the classes, 
Ritchey*s Manual Training, and Rouillion's "Economics of Man- 
ual Training," and Bacon's "Forging and Practice" are used as 
text-books. Much reference work is done, all students having 
free access to the library, which is well equipped. 

MATHEMATICS 

REVIEW, RURAL AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES 

1. Rural School Arithmetic. This course reviews the en- 
tire field of grade arithmetic, giving especial attention to the 
needs of the rural schools. Much attention will be given to 
problems bearing on farm and home life. In connection with 
the course, instruction will be given in grading pupils in arith- 
metic, and that part of the State Manual bearing on this sub- 
ject will be reviewed. 12 weeks' credit. MR. JILLSON. 



SUMMER BULLETIN 27 

7. Plane Geometry. Designed for those preparing for 
teachers' examination and those desiring a review of the sub- 
ject as a preparatory subject. Much attention is given to the 
methods of attack. MR. JILLSON. 

13. Arithmetic. A review for those desiring to prepare for 
teachers' examination. Sections will be organized for all grades 
of County Certificates. MR. OTWELL. 

14. Algebra. Review course for those preparing for teach- 
ers' examination or for students who wish to review the sub- 
ject as a preparatory course. MISS GREEN. 



GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES 

101. Arithmetic. A teachers' course. To elect this course 
the student should have a knowledge of geometry and of the 
beginner's course in psychology. The work consists of two 
parts, divided as follows : 

(a) A study of the origin of number and its use. The 
history of the development of the subject-matter of arithmetic, 
and past and present day methods of teaching the subject. As- 
signed readings and class-room discussions form a prominent 
part of this work. 

(b) Review of some of the more difficult parts of arith- 
metic. 12 weeks' credit. 

102. College Algebra. Arithmetical and geometrical pro- 
gressions, binomial theorem, development of functions in series, 
logarithms, theory of equations, convergency and divergency of 
series, permutations and combinations. 12 weeks' credit. 

103. Plane Trigonometry. This is equivalent to the work 
done during the regular session. Solution of triangles by both 
natural and logarithmic functions. 12 weeks' credit. 

Note. — Either 102 or 103 will be given, according to the 
number of students electing one course or the other. 

MUSIC 

101. Elements of Vocal Music. This is an academic course, 
and should precede the Teachers' Course in Music. It pre- 
supposes no previous knowledge, but deals with the very rudi- 
ments of vocal music. It consists of the cultivation of the 
ear, the voice, and the beginning of sight singing. The course 



28 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

covered is that of Book One of any of the standard music 
courses, and may be eliminated by examination. 12 weeks' 
credit. MISS HANSON. 

102. Sight Singing and Chorus. This course consists of ear 
training, voice culture, and chorus singing. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. MAYBEE. 

103. Voice Culture I. This course includes both concert 
and individual work. Correct breathing, proper placing of the 
voice, clarity of tone, articulation and enunciation will be 
treated specifically. Some songs will be taken up for interpreta- 
tion. This course is open to all students. Laboratory credit, 
3 or 6 weeks. MISS HANSON. 

106. Teachers' Course in Music. This must be preceded 
by course 101 or its equivalent. Advanced sight reading and 
ear training are taken up in this class, discussion of methods, 
and practice teaching during the class period as a preparation 
for teaching this subject in the first eight grades. Observation 
is made in the training school. 12 weeks' credit. 

MR. MAYBEE. 
105. Primary Songs and Games. This course is a sug- 
gestive one for teachers in the primary grades as well as for 
specializing students. The following phases will be developed: 
Rhythm — feeling for and interpretation of different rhythms 
through games, balls, percussion instruments, folk dances and 
rhythmic steps. Songs, — a sequence applicable to seasons and 
school festivals and taken from the best composers of children's 
songs will be learned. The care of the child voice and the 
presentation of these two phases to the child will also be taken 
up. Ability to play the rhythmic studies and accompaniments is 
desirable and is required from specializing students in the kin- 
dergarten and music courses. Observation may be made in the 
training school. 6 weeks' credit. MISS HANSON. 

107. High School Methods. Chorus and Art of Conduct- 
ing. This course is offered to those who have had some expe- 
rience in music. The aim is also to prepare music for special 
occasions. 6 weeks' credit. MR. MAYBEE. 

109. Harmony I. The work consists of ear training and a 
study of construction of scales, intervals and chords. The 
writing of simple original settings for songs, and the harmoniz- 
ing of easy melodies. Students must have had Elements of 
Music I or its equivalent and be able to play chords, scales, and 
hymn tunes. 6 weeks' credit. MISS HANSON. 






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SUMMER BULLETIN 29 

Orchestra. All who have instruments and wish to join the 
Normal School Orchestra will find it both pleasant and profitable. 
3 weeks' credit. MR. MAYBEE. 

PENMANSHIP 

This course will be given in muscular movement writing, and 
will meet the needs in methods and practice of rural and city 
teachers of all grades. Attention will be given to analysis, 
grouping, grading, position, etc. Also a course in blackboard 
writing will be offered to meet the demand of those who wish 
to improve their work on the board. Sections will be organized 
in the morning and afternoon, thereby affording an opportunity 
to all students to join one of the classes. 6 weeks' credit. 

MR. NORCROSS. 

PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN 

101. A Course of Plays and Games. Arranged to meet the 
needs of the child at the various stages of development. Games 
for indoor and outdoor use. 6 weeks' credit. MISS FROST. 

102. A Course in Folk Dancing. Folk dancing has taken 
an important place in the physical education of the child. In 
this course will be given dances suitable for each grade. 6 
weeks' credit. MISS FROST. 

For those interested in Playground Work, Courses 101 and 
102 will have special interest. Course 101 is correlated with 
Games and Rhythms, offered in the Kindergarten department. 

Instruction in tennis and volley ball will be given each 
morning at 7:10. 6 weeks' credit. MISS FROST. 

Instruction in swimming will be given in the mornings by 
appointment. The pool is open to the women mornings. 

RURAL SCHOOLS 

A special department gives careful attention to the prepara- 
tion of teachers for country schools. The number of school 
districts in Michigan which pay a salary sufficient to command 
the services of specially prepared teachers, is rapidly increasing. 
The courses offered here, to fit teachers to meet successfully 
the progressive demands of the districts, are the result of ex- 
perience accumulated in working at this problem through the 
nine years since the establishment of this institution. Teachers 
in attendance during the summer term are urged to take courses 



30 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

which will begin for them an accumulation of credit toward a 
State Normal School Certificate, which will legally qualify them 
to teach in the rural and graded schools of the state. 

Beginning with this summer term two courses will be offered 
in the department of rural schools: 

COURSE ONE. Open to graduates of high schools giving 
four years of high school work. Requires one year and one 
summer term of residence study, and grants a certificate good 
in any Michigan school up to the tenth grade. This certificate 
is good for three years and may be renewed once for a like 
period. Graduates of this course may secure a life certificate 
by completing the requirements for such certificate which may 
be done in one year or less. 

COURSE TWO. Open to high school students, but must 
be entered at least one year, and preferably two years before 
the time at which the student expects to graduate. This course 
requires the same total weeks credit for its completion that is 
required for graduation from a good high school. The certifi- 
cate granted is good in any one, two, or three room school in 
the state for five years, and it is renewable once for three years. 
Graduates of this course may complete a life certificate course 
in two years. 

In enrolling for the summer term students should look ahead 
to one or the other of these courses or to a life certificate 
course. Students who have finished ten grades or eleven grades 
of high school work may find that they may do as much to 
qualify themselves for the August county teachers* examination 
by taking credit courses as by taking only reviews, in all such 
cases credit courses should be taken. High school graduates 
who have had twelve grades may work off the summer term 
requirement toward rural school course one. Take time to 
confer with Mr. Burnham. Miss Goodrich, or your county school 
commissioner about these matters on enrollment day if you have 
no opportunity before then. Correspondence and personal con- 
ference will be welcomed at any time. 

The county school commissioners of Southwestern Michigan 
always cooperate heartily in the work of the summer term. 
Several commissioners are in regular attendance as instructors, 
and all from the affiliated counties are usually present on en- 
rollment day, and at least once a week thereafter, most fre- 
quently when special lectures are given, when it is customary to 
hold conferences of commissioners to consider questions pertain- 
ing to the welfare of rural schools. Rooms will always be 



SUMMER BULLETIN 31 

available for commissioners who wish to call their teachers to- 
gether for social or other purposes. The accessibility and nat- 
ural beauty of Oakwood Park make this a desirable place for 
county picnics. One meeting of the commissioners each year is 
held in the Normal's Rural Observation School at Oakwood. 

SPECIAL COURSES 

In addition to the review and methods courses offered in the 
several departments, courses are given which are especially 
planned to meet the peculiar needs of teachers of rural schools. 

1. School Management and Law. It will be the aim of 
this course to make as thorough a study as time will permit of 
the State Course of Study for rural schools, the General School 
Laws and School Management. Students owning McMurry's 
"How to Study and Teaching How to Study," and text-books 
in school management should bring them. The work will be 
supplemented by library references and incidental illustrations 
from the daily work of rural schools. The exhibits of actual 
rural school work from the counties and from the Normal's 
Rural Observation School will be closely studied. This course 
will directly aid all who are preparing for the August county 
teachers' examination, in three regular examination topics: 
Theory and Art, Course of Study, and School Law. As many 
sections will be organized as the enrollment makes advisable. 
All who complete this course will be given 6 weeks' credit in 
the regular Rural School Course. See also the announcement of 
a special course in Rural School Methods under "Teaching" on 
a subsequent page. MR. ROBINSON, MISS GREEN. 

2. Rural Social Service. A directed course in reading in 
Rural Social Service will be amplified by discussion for the 
purpose of calling the attention of teachers to the great possi- 
bilities in rural social life and inspiring them to take part 
intelligently in local activities, whch make for rural progress. 
All who complete this work will be given 6 weeks' credit in the 
regular Rural School Course. MISS ENSFIELD. 

3. Agriculture. This course aims to give the student a 
general conception of the possibilities of the various phases of 
agriculture in the rural school. This will include the use of 
a text-book, lectures, visits to neighboring farms and cream- 
eries, and experimental work in the School Garden. Four hours 
a week, 6 weeks' credit. MR. NASH, MISS KOCH. 



32 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

TEACHING 

101. General Methods. (1) A study of the elementary 
school curriculum with consideration of the subject-matter best 
suited to the interests and needs of each period of childhood. 
(2) The problem of motivation of school work. (3) A discus- 
sion of types of lessons and the making of lesson plans. (4) 
Systematic observation of different phases of grade work in the 
training school, with reports and class discussion. 12 weeks' 
credit. MISS SPINDLER. 

7. Rural School Methods. The preceding course will be 
given in two sections, one for graded school, the other for rural 
school teachers. In the latter course special problems of the 
rural school will be considered and emphasis will be given to 
the construction work and seat work possible in rural schools. 
At least one-half hour daily of observation in the training 
school is required. 6 weeks' credit. MISS GOODRICH. 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

The first, second, fourth, and sixth grades of the training 
school will be in session from 9 to 11 a. m. each day for four 
weeks of the summer term, to accommodate those who wish to 
observe teaching in the grades. The regular critic teachers will 
have charge of this work, with the cooperation of the special 
teachers in drawing, music, manual training, physical training, 
domestic art, and domestic science. The work will aim to pre- 
sent proper material for use in the various subjects of the cur- 
riculum, such as nature study, geography, reading, and language, 
and the special branches, including handwork, as well as to show 
good methods of teaching. 

It is hoped that large numbers of the students will avail 
themselves of the help thus afforded them. No Normal School 
credit is offered for this work. Commissioners may arrange 
with the director, however, for reports of attendance of their 
teachers. Observation will be required in connection with the 
courses in General Methods and Rural School Methods. Each 
critic will reserve the 11 o'clock period for conference and 
general discussion with the observers in the grade and it is 
expected that students observing will attend at least one confer- 
ence each week. 

Students taking observation in any course should fill out 
cards in the office of the Training School as soon as their 
regular enrollment is completed. 

MISS SPINDLER and CRITIC TEACHERS. 



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